Author/Yr Study type Intervention Patient pop. Mortality Secondary Significance
Eddleston 2008 Prospective No AC SDAC 50g MDAC 50g q4h x6 4632 Sri Lanka  all ODs MDAC 6.3% SDAC 7.1% No AC 6.8% ↓ Adverse events ↓ Trend mortality: early AC       ↓ Trend need for Tx        
Roberts  2006 Prospective SDAC 50g MDAC 50g q4h x6 254 Sri Lanka cardiac glycosides None ↓ MRT and t1/2 Small study no deaths.
De Silva  2003 Prospective SDAC 50g MDAC q6h x72h 401 Sri Lanka cardiac glycosides SDAC 8% MDAC 2.5% ↓ Arrhythmia, atropine, pacing, ICU admits               ↓ Mortality ↓ Need for Tx
Ibanez 1995 Retrospective MDAC vs. no AC 39 Digoxin None ↓ t1/2 36h vs. 68h             ↑ Cl  98   vs. 55 Small study, benefit in renal failure, 78% ↑ elimination
Abbreviations: AC:Activated Charcoal; G:Grams; H:Hours; ICU:Intensive Care Unit; LOS:Length of Stay; MRT:Mean Residence Time; N:Number of Patients; NAC:NAcetylcysteine; OD:Overdose; SDAC:Single Dose Activated Charcoal; Tx: Treatment; ↑:Increase; ↓:Decrease
Table 2: Studies evaluating multiple dose activated charcoal (MDAC) mortality benefit.