Mediator Consequences of Overproduction
Reactive oxidant species: O2-, H2O2, HOCl, OH’ Damage cellular lipids, proteins and DNA. Implicated in cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and others [9].
Nitric Oxide Synthase-derived Nitrogen Intermediates & Peroxynitrite Peroxynitrite implicated in cardio-vascular disease, neurodegeneration, diabetes etc. [123].
Proteases e.g. serine proteases in the azurophilic granules: Cathepsin G, elastase, proteinase 3  Matrix metalloproteinases e.g. MMP-8 & MMP-9 Degrades matrix proteins such as elastin; implicated in emphysema, chronic bronchitis and cystic fibrosis [124]. Cause matrix breakdown in COPD, ARDS, sarcoidosis, and tuberculosis etc [125].
Lipid mediators: LTB4, LTC4,LTD4, Platelet Activating Factor (PAF), PGE2 Overproduction of LTB4 associated with leukocyte recruitment is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease [126]. LTC4, LTD4 play a role in asthma [127].
Cytokines: Pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g. IL-1, IL-6, TNF, IL-12, & anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-10 Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF may be involved in septic shock, autoimmunity & inflammatory diseases [128].
Chemokines: IL-8, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein(MIP)-1a & b, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) Overproduction of chemokines such as IL-8 may be involved in inflammatory conditions, e.g. COPD, ARDS [129-130].
Abbreviations: LT: Leukotriene; PGE2: Prostaglandin E2; COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Table 2: Mediators of inflammation released by cells of the innate immune system and their potential pathological effects.