ROS •Increased generation in CdCl2/CdS (0.6μM-1mM) treated neutrophils & macrophages. •Increased generation in MeHgCl(1.25-5μM)-treated monocytes, activated with PMA. •Pt & Pd (0.025-25μM) potentiate reactivity of neutrophil derived ROS. •Vanadium 2+, 3+, 4+ (25μM) mediate hydroxyl radical production from FMLP-& PMA-activated neutrophils. •Increased generation by rat alveolar macrophages treated with sodium metavanadate (50-1000μM).






NO 0.6-10μM CdCl2 cause increased NO production by macrophages.


LTB4 •<30μM CdCl2 augments LTB4 secretion by rabbit alveolar macrophages. •Production increased in neutrophils from lead exposed workers. •Increased generation by rabbit alveolar macrophages exposed to HgCl2.




Cytokines •Increased production(or expression of mRNA) of IL-1, TNF, IL-6 by PBMC exposed to CdCl2/CdSO4 (1-10µM). •Increased production of TNF, IL-6, IL-12, PGE2 and decreased production of IL-10 by Pb treated macrophages. •HgCl2 (200nm-5μM) increases the production of IL-1b, TNF, IL-6, IL-8 and downregulates production of IL-Ra & IL-10.




Abbreviations: CdCl2, cadmium chloride; CdS, cadmium sulphide; MeHgCl, methyl mercury chloride; Pt, Platinum; Pd, palladium; FMLP, N-formyl-methionyl-leucinephenylalanine); PMA, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate
Table 3: Macrophage- and neurophil-derived inflammatory mediators which are increased following exposure to heavy metals.