Figure 1: Experimental models (A), protocol (B), ectopic bone formation by MSC (C), and assignment table (D) of the in vivo studies. Six rabbits received intra-venous infusion and intra-medullar infusion of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), transduced by Foamy viral (FV) vector carrying 2 marker genes (NOoA or NOoB), as illustrated. C: The ectopic bone formation was induced by subcutaneous MSC implantation with collagen matrix in NOD/SCID mice (“MSC”), but not by empty matrix (“Control”).