Groups Pre-training 5th week Post-training
Hard Sand Hard Sand Hard Sand
S 15.0 ± 1.0† 11.5 ± 0.8 18.2 ± 1.0*§ 14.2 ± 0.9*§ 20.9 ± 0.8*§† 16.9 ± 0.7*§
I 14.9 ± 0.9† 11.9 ± 0.9 15.8 ± 1.1* 12.6 ± 0.9* 16.9 ± 1.1*† 12.9 ± 0.9*
C 8.2 ± 1.8       9.1 ± 2.0*  
*p<0.001 from the pre-training value
§p<0.001 from group I
†p<0.001 from group C
Table 5: Overhead passing skills score for all three groups before (pre), in the middle (5th wk) and after the end (post) of the 10-week training program (mean ± SD).