Groups Pre-training 5th week Post-training
Hard Sand Hard Sand Hard Sand
S 18.6 ± 1.1† 15.3 ± 1.0 22.2 ± 1.4*§ 18.9 ± 1.3*§ 29.1 ± 1.0*§ 22.7 ± 0.9*§
I 18.2 ± 1.3† 15.3 ± 1.3 19.5 ± 1.6* 16.7 ± 1.6* 21.3 ± 1.6* 17.2 ± 1.4*
C 8.4 ± 1.7       9.1 ± 1.7*  
*p< 0.001 from the pre-training value
§p< 0.001 from group I
†p<0.001 from group C
Table 6: Forearm passing skills score for all three groups before (pre), in the middle (5th wk) and after the end (post) of the 10-week training program (mean ± SD).