HAL p LAP p LESS p
RIGHT (N=73) -- RIGHT (N=36) LEFT (N=36) RIGHT (N=13) LEFT (N=13)
Time to Clears (hour) 22±3.4 -- -- 19±4.8 21±5.4 0.13 18±4.3 18±1.9 0.84
Length of Stay (days) 2.4±0.6 -- -- 2.1±0.4 2.1±0.4 0.58 2.4±0.7 2.2±0.8 0.38
VAPS at discharge 1.2±1.3 -- -- 1.4±1.5 1.6±1.2 0.51 1.4±1.0 1.5±1.5 0.92
Return to Work (days) 12±3.3 -- -- 11±3.1.83 12±2.9 0.26 11±1.6 12±2.6 0.66
Return to Normal Activity (days) 19±4.1 -- -- 19±3.8 20±3.0 0.20 18±2.9 19±3.9 0.30
Return to 100% (days) 26±4.6 -- -- 26±4.1 27±5.0 0.17 26±2.8 27±3.9 0.68

HAL: hand-assisted laparoscopy, LAP: standard laparoscopy, LESS: laparoendoscopic single site surgery, VAPS: visual analog pain score
Table 3: Postoperative Parameters.