CALCINEURINE INHIBITORS Endothelial dysfunction, decreased production of NO, altered concentration of Ca2+, impaired cholesterol esterification, increased free intracellular cholesterol levels, oxidative processes, vascular alterations of the afferent arteriolas, ions alterations and hyperkaliemia, tubular cell apoptosis and necrosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to nephrotoxicity and pancreatic beta cells damage
MAMMALIAN TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN INHIBITORS Contrast the renal fibrosis caused by TGF-beta Increased hepatic secretion of VLDL, increased hepatic synthesis of apoB100, reduction in the hepatic catabolism of LDL. Decreased action of lipoprotein lipase, increased expression of apoCIII and lipase in adipose tissue.
CORTICOSTEROIDS Imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, increase synthesis and secretion of endothelin-1, increased erythropoietin levels, increased sympathetic activity, increased expression of vasoactive substances and altered function of receptors, nitric oxide deficiency, modified insulin signaling cascade, increased endogenous glucose production.
Table 3: Immunosuppressive Drugs and Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Side Effects.