Gene Effect References
1,3Gal (alpha-1,3-galactosytransferase) knock out (GalTKO) Reduced Galalpha-1,3-Gal (Gal) expression, reduced hyperacute rejection [23,24]
hCD46 (hMCP, human membrane cofactor) Human complement regulation [24,25]
hCD46+GalTKO Human complement regulation+Reduced Gal expression [26]
hCD55 (hDAF, human decay accelerating factor) Human complement regulation [27,28]
hCD55+endo-beta-galactosidase C Human complement regulation+Reduced Gal expression [29]
hCD59 Human complement regulation [30-32]
hCD55+hCD59 Human complement regulation [33,34]
hCD46+hCD55+hCD59 Human complement regulation [35-37]
H-transferase (alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase) Reduced Gal expression [38]
hCD59+H-transferase (alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase) Human complement regulation+reduced Gal expression [39]
hCTLA4-Ig (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen) Inhibits T-cell activity [40]
hTM (human thrombomodulin) Activate human anticoagulant protein C [41]
hA20 (humanA20, tumor necrosis factor-alpha inducible gene) Controls acute vascular rejection [42]
HLA-E/ (human leukocyte antigen-E)+human beta2-microglobulin Protection from NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity [43]
TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) Reduced posthyperacute cellular rejection [44]
GnT-III (beta-d-mannoside beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III ) Reduced antigenicity to human natural antibodies [45]
hHO-1 (human heme oxygenase-1) Antiapoptosis [46]
Fas ligand (Fas L) Antiapoptosis [47]
GalTKO+CD55+CD59 Control of instant blood-mediated unflammatory reaction (IBMIR) when transplanting neonatal isleT-cell clusters [48]
GalTKO+CD55+CD59+H-transferase Reduced xenoantibody response to isleT-cells from transgenic animals [49]
GalTKO+H-transferase Reduced expression of alpha Gal antigen [50]
Soluble TNFRI-Fc-hHO Protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury [51]
Optimized hTM Overcome coagulation incompatibilities in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. [52]
GalTKO+CD46 Suppress in vitro human anti-pig cellular responses [53]
HLA-E Suppression of inflammatory macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity and proinflammatory cytokine production [54]
CD55 CD59+H-transferase genes Enhanced protective response to human serum-mediated cytolysis [55]
Table 1: Strategies to overcome rejection and physiological incompatibility: Genetically modified pigs.