Strategy of xenotransplantation Pig xenotransplant Immunosuppression Time after Tx Number of patients Result References
Acute liver failure Bioartificial liver device, 90-100 g wet weight None 6 hrs pre/post 6 No PERV transmission [123]
Cryopreserved hepatocytes N=2 for liver-tx after procedure 3 month-5 yrs post treat­ment 28 No PERV transmission [124]
AMC-BAL   Before, 0 days to 2 yrs after 14 No PERV transmission [125,126]
Plasma perfusion though bioreactor Exposure 8-46 hrs Up to 2-5 yrs 8 No PERV transmission [127]
Followed by liver Tx+immunosuppression
Fulminant liver failure Extracorporeal liver perfusion, tg-liver Exposure 6-10hr   2 No PERV transmission [128]
Chronic glomerulonephritis Renal dialysis Extracorporeal kidney perfusion   6 hrs-36 months 2 No PERV transmission [129]
Neurological conditions (Parkinson, Huntington, focal epilepsy) Fetal pig mesencephalon, lateral ganglionic eminence cells CsA (n=11), graft pretreated with Abs 2-24 months post-Tx 11 PD No PERV transmission [130]
12 HD
1 FE
Diabetes Encapsulated islets No IS (n=1) 19 months 2 No PERV transmission [131]
CsA, AZA, pred (n=1) for kidney Tx
Porcine fetal islets, 4x108-2x109 cells CsA, pred, AZA maintenance 32-86 months post-Tx 10 No PERV transmission [132]
Porcine c-peptide up to 450d post-Tx (n=4) Mitochondrial DNA detectable 3d-1yr (n=1), d3 (n=6): all had Abs within 1wk post-Tx
Beginning in 2009 treated with one of four different dosages of alginate-encapsulated porcine islets ranging from 5,000-20,000 IEQ/kg delivered in a single dose No IS 1, 4, 12, 24, 52 weeks after Tx 14 with severe unaware hypoglycemia No PERV transmission, reduction of hypoglycemia [81]
Acute liver failure Cryopreserved hepatocytes Exposure 2-30 hours No PERV transmission 28 No PERV transmission [133,134]
Extracorporeal liver perfusion Exposure 4-25 hours, IS after subsequent liver Tx No PERV transmission 28  
Burns Skin Exposure 10 days 36-150 months 15  
Chronic glomerulonephritis Renal dialysis Extracorporeal kidney perfusion Exposure 35, 65 min 32-36 months 2  
Various indications Extracorporeal splenic perfusion Exposure 50-60 min 0-102 months 100  
Diabetes Islets   19-93 months 14  
Abbreviations: Abs, antibodies; AMC-BAL, Academic Center in Amsterdam, BAL, bio-artificial liver; CsA, cyclosporine; AZA, azathioprine; IS, immunosuppression; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; pred, prednisolone; Ster, steroids; Tx, transplantation; PD, Parkinson´s disease; HD, Huntington´s disease; FE, focal epilepsy.
Table 4: Clinical xenotransplantations.