Epidural (N=12) PCA (N=9) PCA+Dex
PCA+Dex+Gabapentin (N=23) Total (N=62) p value
Morphine Equivalent Dose (mg)
N 12 9 18 23 62  
Mean(SD) 48.1(45.20) 238.7(239.74) 225.6(85.79) 235.1(74.79) 196.7(131.84)  
Range (1.0-127.8) (19.0-795.0) (45.0-347.0) (95.3-390.2) (1.0-795.0)  
SD: Standard Deviation; PCA: Patient Controlled Analgesia; Dex: Dexmedetomidine, mg: milligrams
aUpon evaluating the pairwise comparisons using Tukey’s standardized range test, the mean analgesic total dose was significantly lower for the Epidural group when compared to the PCA, PCA+Dex, and PCA+Dex+Gabapentin groups (p<0.05). Epidurals contained 0.1 bupivacaine and fentanyl 10 mcg/ml which was not included in opiate analysis
Table 3: Parenteral Analgesic Use (in morphine equivalent dose).