Entire group (n=501)

COPD (n=133)

Non-COPD (n=388)

P*

Hypertension

350 (69.9)

81 (71.7)

269 (69.3)

0.632

Hyperlipidaemia

312 (62.3)

65 (57.5)

247 (63.7)

0.236

Ishaemic heart disease

381 (76.0)

87 (77.0)

294 (75.8)

0.789

Congestive cardiac failure

25 (5.0)

10 (8.8)

15 (3.9)

0.032

Arrhythmia

124 (24.8)

33 (29.2)

91 (23.5)

0.213

Valvular heart disease

85 (17.0)

15 (13.3)

70 (18.0)

0.235

Pulmonary hypertension

15 (3.0)

8 (7.1)

7 (1.8)

0.004


Values are numbers with percentages in parenthesis
*p between COPD and non-COPD subjects
Table 2: Pattern of cardiovascular diseases among subjects.