Figure 12: Schematic representation of possible mechanism of action of curcumin against HAPE as prophylactic drug. Exposure to hypoxia increased the oxidative stress (ROS, MDA) and concomitantly reduced the antioxidant status (GSH, GPX and SOD). This further caused enhanced transvascular leakage leading to fluid buildup in the lungs due to up regulated NFκB and HIF-1α and their downstream genes that play a major role in causing inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules) and vascular leakage (VEGF). Whereas prophylactic treatment of rats with curcumin reversed the changes brought by hypoxic treatment. ┴ inhibition, ↑ up regulation, HAPE=High altitude pulmonary edema.