A: Housewives, limited freedom to go out of home or work; limited permission to contact with or stay among men; limited authority to use household money and resources for medical care and fulfilling needs; limited access to social services including education, health care; and others
B: Remains at poorly ventilated and dark homes for long times; exposure to household pollutions including solid foils for cooking, household dusts; inadequate food and nutrients i.e., often eat food remaining from males; poverty i.e. dependence on men incomes; overcrowding i.e. stay with children and women in the family; and experiencing frequent pregnancy
Figure 2: Vicious circle in the epidemiology of tuberculosis among Afghan females.