Grouping Drugs
Group 1
First-line oral agents
Isoniazid (H)
Rifampicin (R)
Ethambutol (E)
Pyrazinamide (Z)
Rifabutin (Rfb)a
Group 2
Injectable agents
Kanamycin (Km)
Amikacin (Am)
Capreomycin (Cm)
Viomycin (Vm)
Streptomycin (S)
Group 3
Moxifloxacin (Mfx)
Levofloxacin (Lfx)
Ofloxacin (Ofx)
Group 4
Oral bacteriostatic second-line
Ethionamide (Eto)
Protionamide (Pto)
Cycloserine (Cs)
Terizidone (Trd)
p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)
Group 5
Agents with unclear role in MDR-TB
treatment (not recommended by WHO)
Clofazimine (Cfz)
linezolid (Lzd)
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Amx/Clv)
Thioacetazone (Thz)
Imipenem/cilastatin (Ipm/Cln)
High-dose isoniazid (high dose H)b
Clarithromycin (Clr)
aRifabutin is not on the WHO List of Essential Medicines. It has been added here as it is used routinely in patients on protease inhibitors in many settings.
bHigh-dose H is defined as 16-20 mg/kg/day.
Table 1: Alternative method of grouping antituberculosis drugs [12].