Tool Markers Strains Polymorphism Reference
Ribotyping 16S rRNA 3 strains (Australia, Africa & Mexico) Low polymorphism for intra-species differentiation. 16S rRNA is conserved. [46]
PFGE&AFLP Whole genome 2 strains (Australia & Africa) Limited by genetic homogeneity of MU strains, and restriction enzymes [57]
RFLP IS2404, IS2606& polymorphic markers 6 strains (Africa, Australia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Japan &Suriname) Low polymorphism for differentiating MU& MPM isolates from the same origin. Polymorphism depends on restriction enzymes used. [40, 46]
MLST 8 housekeeping genes 6 strains (Surinam, Papua New Guinea, Mexico, Japan/China, Africa & Australia) Polymorphism may vary depending on gene loci [55]
VNTR Over 20 VNTR loci 8 genotypes (Ghana isolates) Variable for other geographical isolates Differentiates strains (MU&MPMs) from the same origin. Genotypes depends on loci used. [9, 14, 15, 48, 85]
SNP ISE, 94 CDS 11 ISE-SNP types 13 SNP haplotypes Strain specific differentiation [45, 67]
Table 1: Summary of tools for genotyping M. ulcerans.