Hearing impairment in early childhood: signs and risk factors – Ptok, 2011.
•Concern on the part of parents/guardians regarding the hearing, speech development, or general development of their child
•Family history of permanent hearing impairment in childhood
•Stay of more than 5 days in the neonatal intensive care unit, possibly including the need for ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, assisted breathing, administration of ototoxic drugs or loop diuretics, and hyperbilirubinemia requiring transfusion
•Intrauterine infections such as cytomegalovirus, herpes, rubella, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis
•Craniofacial anomalies, including malformation of the earlobe, auditory canal, or auricular appendages and anomalies of the auditory pit and petrosa
•External signs that may indicate a syndrome involving sensorineural hearing loss or permanent conductive hearing loss, e.g., a white forelock
•Syndromes involving immediate, progressive, or late-onset hearing loss, such as neurofibromatosis, osteopetrosis, and Usher syndrome; other complexes associated with hearing disorders are Waardenburg, Alport, Pendred, and Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndromes
•Neurodegenerative diseases such as Hunter syndrome or sensorimotor neuro - pathies such as Friedreich ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome
•Demonstration in culture of infections associated with sensory hearing loss, including bacterial or viral (especially herpes or varicella) meningitis
•Head injury, particularly fractures of the skull base or petrosa requiring inpatient treatment
•Otitis media recurring frequently or persisting for more than 3 months
Table 2: Hearing impairment in early childhood: signs and risk factors – Ptok, 2011.