Figure 16:A: A working hypothesis for a development of auditory, language and literacy skills. The earlier stage is expected to propel development of the latter stages with some degree of retrograde interactions. Stage I: fundamental auditory ability such as detecting sounds, and discriminating frequency and intensity. Stage II: higher order auditory processing, which involves the neural mechanism underlying a fine-grained temporal auditory processing. Stage III: conscious recognition of the sound units (phonemes) in terms of language. Stage IV: listening and speaking (i.e., oral language). Stage V: reading and writing (i.e., literacy). Stage VI: critical thinking, reflective writing, reasoned analysis and problem solving (i.e., academic skills). B: The rapid-rate processing hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) (based on Tallal and Piercy [106]). This hypothesis emphasizes that deficit in fine-grained temporal auditory processing (stage II) disrupt the normal development of an efficient phonological system (stage III), and that phonological processing deficits result in subsequent failure of language-literacy development (stage IV, V, VI).