Treated with pioglitazone Treated without pioglitazone P
N 720 746  
Age, y (average) 65.2 64.3 NS
Sex (male/female) 504/216 495/251 NS
Occurrence of bladder cancer 15 14 NS
Antidiabetic drugs      
 Glucagon-like peptide-1 analog 4 3 NS
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor 150 129 NS
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) 385 238 <0.001
Biguanides 391 215 <0.001
 Prandial glucose regulators 133 67 <0.001
Sulphonylureas (Second generation) 139 99 0.0126
Sulphonylureas (Third generation)) 206 170 0.002
 Insulin 164 273 <0.001
Table 1: Patients’characteristics. There are no differences in age, sex, and incidence of bladder cancer between patients treated with pioglitazone and patients treated with other antidiabetic drugs.