Explanatory Variables N (1)2 (2)3 (3)4
Emergency Room Visit 15,751 0.146*** (0.024) 0.078*** (0.020) 0.082*** (0.020)
Inpatient Hospital Night 15,751 0.061*** (0.013) 0.034*** (0.012) 0.036*** (0.011)
Number of ER visits5 5,019 0.625*** (0.190) 0.398** (0.187) 0.452** (0.179)
Number of inpatient hospital nights6 761 0.820 (0.721) 0.288 (0.812) 1.084 (0.827)
1Average treatment effects on the treated estimated using propensity score matching with nearest three neighbors are reported. 
2Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, and number of persons in the household.
3Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, and number of persons in the household, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depression and anxiety diagnoses.
4Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, and number of persons in the household, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depression and anxiety diagnoses, physical and mental health status, and diagnoses of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, asthma, and pneumonia.
5Analysis uses reduced sample with respondents that report at least 1 ER visit in the past year. 
6Analysis uses reduced sample with respondents that report at least 1 inpatient hospital night in the past year. 
* Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.10; ** Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.05; ***Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.01.
Table 3A: Effect of NMPD Use on Health services utilization for adolescents1.