Explanatory Variables N (1)2 (2)3 (3)4
Emergency Room Visit 36,516 0.112*** (0.011) 0.081*** (0.011) 0.060*** (0.011)
Inpatient Hospital Night1 36,516 0.031*** (0.006) 0.031*** (0.007) 0.022*** (0.007)
Number of ER visits5 11,113 0.216*** (0.081) 0.077 (0.089) 0.124 (0.085)
Number of inpatient hospital nights6 3,422 0.466 (0.385) -0.231 (0.447) -0.092 (0.444)
1Average treatment effects on the treated estimated using propensity score matching with nearest three neighbors are reported. 
2Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, education, marital status, employment, and number of persons in the household.
3Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, education, marital status, employment, and number of persons in the household, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depression and anxiety diagnoses.
4 Models control for: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, health insurance, urbanicity, pregnancy status, education, marital status, employment, and number of persons in the household, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depression and anxiety diagnoses, physical and mental health status, and diagnoses of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, asthma, and pneumonia.
5Analysis uses reduced sample with respondents that report at least 1 ER visit in the past year. 
6Analysis uses reduced sample with respondents that report at least 1 inpatient hospital night in the past year. 
* Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.10; ** Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.05; ***Statistically significant, p ≤ 0.01.
Table 3B: Effect of Heavy NMPD Use on Health Services Utilization for Adults1.