Method Techniques Equipment
Mechanical crushing
shearing
grinding
pulverizing
mortar and pestle, coffee grinder,hammer, blender, worm drive clamp, cheese grater
Chemical dissolution
solvent extraction
water, beer, wine, spirits, soda,lemon juice, household cleaners
Thermal heating
freezing
oven, microwave, freezer, liquid nitrogen, dry ice
Oral chewing
multiple administration
saliva, masticatory force
Parenteral syringeability
injectability
filtration
needle, syringe, cotton filter,cigarette filter, spoon, heat source
Insufflation crush straw, bill, pen, spray bottle
Inhalation burn or heat lighter, stove, candle, aluminum foil
Table 1: Common Tampering Methods.