Figure 4: NBD peptide reverses enhanced expression of muscle specific ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx/Atrogin-1 induced in tumor-bearing animals. Using RT-PCR, the loss of lean muscle in tumor-bearing animals was confirmed with the upregulation of MuRF1 (A) and MAFbx/Atrogin-1 (B) shown in folds changes relative to non-tumor-bearing control animals. NBD peptide reduced the expression of MuRF1 and MAFbx/Atrogin-1. * p<0.05. ** p<0.001.