Figure 2: Myc and HIF-1 regulate glucose metabolism and stimulate the Warburg effect. Myc and HIF-1 are depicted to regulate (dotted lines) genes involved in glucose metabolism (glucose transporter Glut1, HK2, PKM2, LDHA, and PDK1), favoring the conversion of glucose to lactate (glycolysis). Myc is also depicted to stimulate glutamine metabolism through the regulation of glutaminase (GLS). Glutamine is shown converted to α- ketoglutarate (α-KG) for catabolism through the TCA cycle to malate, which is transported into the cytoplasm and converted to pyruvate and then to lactate (glutaminolysis).