Figure 3: Effects of GHCer on the production of cytokine and immunoglobulin. Mouse splenocytes or purified CD4+ T cells were incubated with GHCer, ceramide or medium control for 24 hrs, and then activated by anti-mouse CD3 and CD28 mAbs for 3 day. Supernatants were collected for determination of IL-2 (A), IFN-γ (B) and IL-4 (C) by ELISA assay. Mouse splenocytes or purified CD19+ B cells were incubated with GHCer or ceramide for 24 hrs and activated by LPS or LPS combined with IL-4 and mouse CD40 ligand for 4 days. Supernatants were collected to determine the production of IgM (D) and IgG (E) by ELISA assay and cells were harvested to examine the population of CD138+ plasma cells (F) by flow cytometry. The data are presented as mean ± SD of triplicate. *, p<0.05, compared with control.