Figure 4: Proteins involved in the HR pathway. When DSBs occur, ATM, ATR and CHEK2 kinases phosphorylates BRCA1 that is stabilized by BARD1. At the same time a complex of Fanconi anemia proteins (A, C, D2, E, F and G) permit the ubiquitinization of D2 protein and the consequent interaction between D2 and BRCA1. BRCA2 carries RAD51, the recombination enzyme, to the site of DNA damage. DSS1 is a BRCA2-binding protein essential in controlling BRCA2-dependent recombination and involved in maintaining the correct conformation of BRCA2.