Figure 2: NGD16 abrogates VEGF induced in vivo as well as ex vivo angiogenesis. (A) NGD16 abrogates in vivo angiogenesis in mouse matrigel plug assay. Seven days after incubation and three days of subsequent treatment, matrigel plugs were removed from C57BL/6J mice administered with control (without VEGF-A and bFGF), treated (with VEGF-A and bFGF) and NGD16 (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/d, i.p.) exposed were compared. (B) Hemoglobin content of the Matrigel plugs was quantified with Drabkin’s reagent and analyzed spectrophotometrically compared with untreated control (n ≥ 3, * P< 0.05). (C) NGD16 inhibits sprouting of microvessels in ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. Aortic rings treated with VEGF (+ ve control) and without VEGF (-ve control) and/or NGD16 for 48 h were compared. The red arrows surrounding the rings indicate the VEGF induced microvascular outgrowth. (D) Number of sprouts/ microvessels originating from each aortic ring was quantified under an inverted microscope and data from three individual experiments were subjected to statistical analysis for significance (n = 3, * p< 0.05).