Figure 6: Schematic diagram representing the proposed mechanism of action of NGD16 in inhibiting angiogenesis. NGD16 might be doing this by translocating the pro-angiogenic GRP78 to the plasma membrane and thereby inhibiting the expression of angiogenic proteins like; MMP-9 and VEGFR-2. Our work also explored a novel interaction between GRP78 and TIMP-1, which is suggested to be controlling this MMP-9 mediated angiogenic cascade.