Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
In 2011, there were 118,711 new cases of cancer diagnosed in Australia (67,117 males and 51,594 females. In 2015, it is estimated that 126,800 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in Australia (69,790 males and 57,010 females. In 2011, the age-standardised incidence rate was 484 cases per 100,000 persons (580 for males and 404 for females).In 2015, it is estimated that the age-standardised incidence rate will be 466 cases per 100,000 persons (537 for males and 407 for females). In 2015, it is estimated that the risk of an individual being diagnosed with cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 2 (1 in 2 males and 1 in 3 females). The number of deaths from cancer increased from 17,032 in 1968 to 43,039 in 2012.Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 199 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1968 to 167 deaths per 100,000 in 2012.