An anal fistula is commonly known as Fistula-in-ano as it is frequently the result of a previous or current anal abscess. An anal abscess is an infected cavity filled with pus found near the anus or rectum. The fistula is the tunnel that structures under the skin and interfaces the stopped up infected organs to a abscess. A fistula can be available with or without an abscess and may join just to the skin of the buttocks near the anal opening. Microscopic organisms, fecal material or foreign matter can obstruct a butt-centric organ and passage into the tissue around the anul or rectum, where it might then gather in a cavity called an abscess.
Anal Fistula is classified by two categories. 1) By their location in relation to the structures comprising and surrounding the anus and rectum. on this basis, it is subclassified as perianal, ischioanal, intersphincteric and supralevator area. 2) By their relationship to parts of the anal sphincter complex: They are subclassified as intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric and extrasphincteric. Symptoms: Anorectal pain, swelling, perianal cellulitis (redness of the skin) and fever are the most common symptoms of an abscess. Occasionally, rectal bleeding or urinary symptoms, such as trouble initiating a urinary stream or painful urination, may be present.
Presently, there is no medicinal treatment accessible for this issue and surgery is quite often important to cure an anal fistula. The surgery may be performed in the meantime as waste of a abscess, once in a while the fistula doesn't show up until weeks or years after the starting drainage. Fibrin glue injection is one such alternative. An endoanal advancement flap is a strategy generally held for complex fistulas or for patients with an expanded potential danger for affliction incontinence from a conventional fistulotomy. Another non-sphincter dividing treatment for anal fistula is the LIFT (ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract) strategy.
Anal fistulae are almost always caused by previous anorectal abscess. Approximately 26–37% of anorectal abscesses will result in the formation of a fistula. Ninety per cent of anorectal abscess is caused by an infection of the glands which empty into the anal canal. Inflammatory bowel disease, in particular Crohn’s disease, may also lead to anal fistula, with incidence of anal fistula in patients with Crohn’s disease as high as 30–50%. Trauma, diverticulitis, foreign body reactions, actinomycosis, Chlamydia, syphilis, tuberculosis, radiation exposure and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are also associated with the formation of anal fistulae. Approximately 30% of HIV patients develop abscess and anal fistula.