Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: Chronic rheumatic heart disease is a common cause of mitral valve disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations, with a prevalence of 16.6 per 1,000 population in the Top End of the Northern Territory and 12.5 per 1,000 in Central Australia, compared with respective figures of 1.7 per 1,000 and 0.6 per 1,000 amongst other Australians.  Although more commonly associated with mitral stenosis, rheumatic heart disease may result in a combined stenosis and insufficiency, or occasionally, an isolated rheumatic insufficiency. The findings of our study indicate that primary chordal rupture is almost invariably a complication of myxomatous valve disease. This was not the case in only 2 of our 31 patients. There are surprisingly few published studies of primary chordal rupture of the mitral valve and three of the four major series were published more than a decade ago. In 1967, Saunders et al. (21) reported that in 18 (46%) of 39 patients with chordal rupture found at autopsy or surgery there was no definite cause of the rupture, and in the same year Selzer et al. (9) described the clinical features of 14 patients with isolated chordal rupture, reporting that the leaflets, inspected at autopsy or surgery, were normal. Microscopic examination of leaflet tissue was not reported in either of these studies. It was also undertaken in only a minority of the series by Caves et al. (22), who found that 17 (8%) of 212 patients undergoing surgery for severe mitral regurgitation had idiopathic chordal rupture.