Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, meaning the body isn't getting enough blood. With this condition, your heart doesn't adequately circulate blood to various regions of the body. The 'normal' blood pressure range is between 90/60 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, so if you have hypotension, you'll have a blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. The top number is the systolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes when the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes between heart beats. Blood pressure can vary throughout the day, but hypotension generally refers to chronic low blood pressure.
Hypospadias results in a urethral opening located below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (the glans penis). This opening may be located on the glans, along the shaft of the penis, at the pouch that contains the testicles (scrotum), or in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the opening is from the tip of the glans, the more likely curvature in the penis (chordee) is present.Mild hypospadias results in a downward spray of the urine stream.Common complications of severe hypospadias include undescended testicles and inguinal hernias (i.e., located in the groin). Other complications include upper urinary tract anomalies and backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux).
Treatment involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis.
There were 3186 boys with hypospadias in 2001–2010. Overall prevalence was 35.1 per 10 000 live births and remained constant during the study period. Proportions of anterior, middle, proximal and unspecified hypospadias were 41.3%, 26.2%, 5.8% and 26.6%, respectively. Surgical procedures were performed in 1945 boys (61%), with 1718 primary repairs. The overall post-surgery complication rate involving fistulas or strictures was 13%, but higher (33%) for proximal cases. Complications occurred after 1 year post-repair in 52.3% of cases and up to 5 years. Boys with proximal or middle hypospadias were at increased risk of reoperation or complications, but age at primary repair did not affect the outcome.