Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR) is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score below 70 in addition to deficits in two or more behaviors that affect every day, general living.
Pathophysiology: Genetic conditions: Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons eg. Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome (common among boys), neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism. Problems during pregnancy: Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly.
Diagnosis: The three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of intellectual disability: deficits in general mental abilities, significant limitations in one or more areas of adaptive behavior across multiple environments and evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood or adolescence. In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals.
Symptoms: The signs and symptoms of intellectual disability are all behavioral. Most people with intellectual disability do not look like they are afflicted with such, especially if the disability is caused by environmental factors such as malnutrition or lead poisoning are: Delays in oral language development, Deficits in memory skills, Difficulty learning social rules, Difficulty with problem solving skills, Delays in the development of adaptive behaviors such as self-help or self-care skills, Lack of social inhibitors.