Osteomyelitis, infection of bone tissue. The condition is most commonly caused by the infectious organism Staphylococcus aureus, which reaches the bone via the bloodstream or by extension from a local injury; inflammation follows with destruction of the cancellous (porous) bone and marrow, loss of blood supply, and bone death. Living bone grows around the infected area and walls in the dead tissue, forming an involucrum, the contents of which are gradually resorbed as the lesion is repaired.
Emphysematous osteomyelitis is associated with high mortality (32%) and significant morbidity, especially in diabetic patients. However, the three-year recurrence rate is high (amputation in more than 22% of patients), as is three-year mortality (27% in patients with primary healing of the initial ulcer, and 41% in those requiring amputation as initial treatment).About 15% of people with diabetes mellitus develop foot ulceration,which is complicated by osteomyelitis in two-thirds of cases Treatment of osteomyelitis requires the long-term administration of intravenous antibiotics; some patients also require surgery to remove dead bone tissue. If the disease is not treated appropriately, acute osteomyelitis can progress to a chronic disease.