Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It arises in bone during periods of rapid growth and primarily affects adolescents and young adults. Osteosarcoma has a predilection for developing in rapidly growing bone. A number of studies have established a correlation between the rapid bone growth experienced during puberty and osteosarcoma development.
In Australia, the incidence of osteosarcoma is 400 cases per year (4.8 per million population < 20 years). The overall 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed was 63% (59% for males; 70% for females). Mifamurtide is used after a patient has had surgery to remove the tumor and together with chemotherapy to kill remaining cancer cells to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Also, the option to have rotationplasty after the tumor is taken out exists.