Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses including: rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Rabies is quarantinable in Australia, and cases must be reported to the World Health Organization. Rabies is subject to human quarantine controls under the Quarantine Act 1908, Rabies is a quarantinable disease because of Australia’s freedom from this disease. It is also reportable to the WHO.
Human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) is prepared by cold ethanol bifurcated from the plasma of highly immunized human donors. In Australia, vaccines are given by IV route as RIG should be infiltrated into finger wounds using a 25 or 26 gauge needle. They are two types of vaccines available in Australia are human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV).
In Australia, In 1996, Australian bat lyssavirus was isolated from fruit-eating bats (flying foxes, Pteropus alecto) on the eastern coast of Australia and the statistics rate is about 95% human spread all over. Rabies causes about 26,000 to 55,000 deaths worldwide per year.