Sleeping sickness, also called "human African trypanosomiasis", is a widespread tropical disease that can be fatal if not treated. It is spread by the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina Genus), a species native to the African continent. Sixty million people who live mainly in rural parts of East, West and Central Africa are at risk of contracting sleeping sickness. Anxiety,Drowsiness during the dayFever Headache Insomnia at nightMood changes Sleepiness (may be uncontrollable)SweatinSwollen lymph nodes all over the bodySwollen, red, painful nodule at site of fly bite Weakness
Treatment: Pentamidine injections protect against T. b. gambiense. But not against T. b. rhodesiense . Because this medicine is toxic, using it for prevention is not recommended.Insect control measures can help prevent the spread of sleeping sickness in high-risk areas.
Sleeping sickness occurs in 36 sub-Saharan Africa countries where there are tsetse flies that transmit the disease.The people most exposed to the tsetse fly and therefore the disease live in rural areas and depend on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting.Human African trypanosomiasis takes 2 forms, depending on the parasite involved: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for more than 98% of reported cases.Sustained control efforts have reduced the number of new cases. In 2009 the number reported dropped below 10 000 for the first time in 50 years, and in 2013 there were 6314 cases recorded.Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is complex and requires specifically skilled staff. The 1920 epidemic was controlled thanks to mobile teams which carried out the screening of millions of people at risk. By the mid-1960s, the disease was under control with less than 5000 cases reported in the whole continent. Since the number of new human African trypanosomiasis cases reported between 2000 and 2012 dropped by 73%, the WHO NTD Roadmap targeted its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.