Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. ). Statistics: From 2005 to 2009, in the Indigenous population, there was a substantial decline in the notification rate for infectious syphilis nationally; as well as in the following subgroups: females, 15–29 year olds, and people living in outer regional and remote areas in the Northern Territory and Queensland.
In contrast, there was a significant (P < 0.001) upward trend in the notification rate in the non-Indigenous population nationally; as well as in males, in people aged 20 years and over, and in residents of metropolitan and regional areas, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.
Statistics: About 15% of the total population are suffering from Syphilis in Australia.