Pathophysiology: Human dirofilariasis typically manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, in many cases asymptomatically. The zoonotic filariae of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens have become increasingly recognized worldwide as inadvertent human pathogens, with the usual hosts of these infective nematodes being domestic and wild carnivores. The primary lesions are visible in the pulmonary artery and in the parenchyma of the lung. And, sometimes also found in the caudal vena cava and hepatic veins thereby affecting the liver. Asymptomatic cases, verminous pneumonitis, advanced heartworm disease with cor pulmonale, the caval syndrome, are the four categories of Dirofilaria.
Symptoms: The primary concern of dirofilariasis is that it might be misdiagnosed as pulmonary or lung cancer. Localized pain at the site of infection, cough (may be bloody), wheezing, small fever, chills, and general discomfort are commonly seen. Treatment: Proper care must be taken to determine whether the patient has been prescribed with any kind of antiparasitic drugs and if they had any sort of side effects. A therapy called anthelmintic chemotherapy is sometimes recommended after the removal of nodules. At sometimes; if the secondary lesions are suspected or confirmed in deep body sites (ie, chest, abdomen), a course of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) may be advisable to prevent further invasive surgery.
Statistics & Research: The incidence and prevalence of human dirofilariasis shows a sex preference that depends on the infecting species. The prevalence of D repens in dogs is also substantial in endemic areas of southern Europe. The epidemiology of human dirofilariasis is related to the prevalence of canine dirofilariasis, the presence of suitable mosquito vectors, and human activities that lead to exposure. Most human cases of dirofilariasis have been diagnosed in areas where canine dirofilariasis has been endemic for many years, Dirofilaria nematodes are currently considered emerging agents of parasitic zoonoses in Europe.