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Acute Coronary Syndrome

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  • Acute coronary syndrome

     Acute coronary syndrome is a term used for any condition brought on by sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart. Acute coronary syndrome symptoms may include the type of chest pressure that you feel during a heart attack, or pressure in your chest while you're at rest or doing light physical activity (unstable angina).

    The first sign of acute coronary syndrome can be sudden stopping of your heart (cardiac arrest).

    Typical symptoms

    • Chest pain (angina) that feels like burning, pressure or tightness, Pain elsewhere in the body, such as the left upper arm or jaw (referred pain), Nausea, Vomiting, Shortness of breath (dyspnea), heavy sweating (diaphoresis).

  • Acute coronary syndrome

     Tests and diagnosis

    Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood tests, Echocardiogram, Chest X-ray, Nuclear scan, Coronary angiogram (cardiac catheterization), Computerized tomography (CT) angiogram, Exercise stress test

  • Acute coronary syndrome

     Statistics

    In the GRACE long-term study,Belgian centres prospectively recruited and followed ACS patients for a median of 5 years (1797 days). Primary outcome events: deaths, cardiovascular deaths (CVDs) and MIs. Secondary events: stroke and re-hospitalization for ACS. There were 736 deaths, 19.8% (482 CVDs, 13%) and 347 (9.3%) MIs (>24 h), 261 strokes (7.7%), and 452 (17%) subsequent revascularizations. Rehospitalization was common: average 1.6 per patient; 31.2% had >1 admission, 9.2% had 5+ admissions.

    These events were despite high rates of guideline indicated therapies. The GRACE score was highly predictive of all-cause death, CVD, and CVD/MI at 5 years (death: χ(2) likelihood ratio 632; Wald 709.9, P< 0.0001, C-statistic 0.77; for CVD C-statistic 0.75, P < 0.0001; CVD/MI C-statistic 0.70, P < 0.0001). Compared with the low-risk GRACE stratum (ESC Guideline criteria), those with intermediate [hazard ratio (HR) 2.14, 95% CI 1.63, 2.81] and those with high-risk (HR 6.36, 95% CI 4.95, 8.16) had two- and six-fold higher risk of later death (Cox proportional hazard)

    . A landmark analysis after 6 months confirmed that the GRACE score predicted long-term death (χ(2) likelihood ratio 265.4; Wald 289.5, P < 0.0001). Although in-hospital rates of death and MI are higher following STEMI, the cumulative rates of death (and CVD) were not different, by class of ACS, over the duration of follow-up (Wilcoxon = 1.5597, df = 1, P = 0.21). At 5 years after STEMI 269/1403 (19%) died; after non-STEMI 262/1170 (22%) after unstable angina (UA) 149/850 (17%). Two-thirds (68%) of STEMI deaths occurred after initial hospital discharge, but this was 86% for non-STEMI and 97% for UA.

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