Epidemiology: Mortality from acute diarrhea is overall globally declining but remains high. Most estimates have diarrhea as the second cause of childhood mortality, with 18% of the 10.6 million yearly deaths in children younger than age 5 years. Most cases of infectious diarrhea are not sex specific. Females have a higher incidence of Campylobacter species infections and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Viral diarrhea is most common in young children. Rotavirus and adenovirus are particularly prevalent in children younger than 2 years.
Symptoms: Dehydration, Sunken skin, malnutrition, abdominal pain & cramps and perianal erythema are the most common symptoms. Treatment: Rehydration therapy (Oral rehydration solution (50-100 mL/kg over 3-4 h)) is treated as the best treatment for diarrhea. Replacement of losses, Usage of cephalosporins & Erythromycin.
Pathophysiology: Diarrhea is an increase in the volume of stool or frequency of defecation. It is one of the most common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease, but also can reflect primary disorders outside of the digestive system. Certainly, disorders affecting either the small or large bowel can lead to diarrhea. Osmotic diarrhea, secretory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea are the types of diarrhea seen.