Hydatid disease unlike most parasitic diseases is more prevalent in the northern hemisphere. Human infection is most common in sheep-raising countries such as Australia and New Zealand, throughout England and Europe, the Middle East, Russia, Northern China, and Japan. In the Americas the disease is especially prevalent in the Southern Cone countries such as Argentina, Uruguay and Chile, and also occurs in Alaska and Canada. Echinococcosis is a parasitic cestode of the phylum platyhelminthes, commonly referred to as tapeworms. There are three forms that occur in humans: cystic (E. granulosus), alveolar (E. multilocularis), and polycystic (E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus) which is rare. The cystic strain is the most common and is known as Hydatid Disease, though all strains have similar life cycles and clinical presentations but affect different organs. Alveolar hydatid disease (E. multilocularis) is a less widespread disease that occurs in countries with larger distributions of the reservoir hosts dogs, wolves, foxes and cats. The disease is mainly prevalent in northern and central Europe, Alaska, and parts of Canada. The spread of Echinococcus infection depends on the presence of dogs and foxes as definitive hosts, susceptible intermediate hosts such as sheep, goats and swine, an environment that enables egg survival, and human populations living in close contact with domesticated animals.
Treatment: Surgical Removal of Hydatid Cysts.90% effective but can be risky depending on location, size, and advancement of cyst may need chemotherapy to prevent recurrance Chemotherapy Albendazole is preferred treatment because it penetrates into hyatid cysts. Dosage: 10mg/kg body weight or 400mg 2x daily for 4 weeks, repeat cycles as necessary (up to 12). Mebendazole Dosage: 40mg/kg body weight 3x daily for 3-6 months. PAIR.Treatment. Puncture, aspiration, injection, respiration. Inject protoscolicidal substances into the cyst