Hemangioma originally described any vascular tumor-like structure, whether it was present at or around birth or appeared later in life. Mulliken et al. categorized these conditions into two families: one of self-involuting tumors, growing lesions that eventually disappear, and another of malformations, enlarged or abnormal vessels present at birth and essentially permanent. The importance of this distinction is that it makes it possible for early-in-life differentiation between lesions that will resolve versus those that are permanent.
Signs and symptoms : If they are on the surface of the skin, they are reminiscent of a ripe strawberry (hence, they are sometimes referred to as "strawberry hemangiomas"). If they are just under the skin they present as a bluish swelling. Sometimes they grow in internal organs such as the liver, larynx, or small and large intestines.In most cases, hemangiomas will disappear over time. Some are formed during gestation and are called congenital hemangiomas; the most common (infantile hemangiomas) appear during the first few weeks of life.
Causes : The cause of hemangioma is currently unknown; however, several studies have suggested the importance of estrogen signaling in hemangioma proliferation. In 2007, a paper from the Stanford Children's Surgical Laboratory revealed that localized soft tissue hypoxia coupled with increased circulating estrogen after birth may be the stimulus.
Statistics : Different renoureteral malformations were present in 5 patients (2.8%): left renal hypoplasia, bilateral ureteral duplication, left bifid renal pelvis and vesicoureteral reflux, left pelvicalyceal dilation, and bilateral vesicoureteral reflux due to ureteral valves. Five patients (2.8%) had abnormalities of the corpus callosum, 1 with agenesis and 4 with hypoplasia. Clubfoot was observed in 2.8% of the patients, and congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) in 3.33%. Vertebral anomalies were found in 2.8% of children: hemivertebrae (3 patients), vertebral fusion (1 patient), and rachischisis of 2 vertebrae (1 patient).