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Male Hypogonadism

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  • Male hypogonadism

    Normal testicular physiology results from the integrated function of the tubular and interstitial compartments. Serum markers of interstitial tissue function are testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), whereas tubular function can be assessed by sperm count, morphology and motility, and serum anti-M�llerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B. The classical definition of male hypogonadism refers to testicular failure associated with androgen deficiency, without considering potential deficiencies in germ and Sertoli cells. Furthermore, the classical definition does not consider the fact that low basal serum testosterone cannot be equated to hypogonadism in childhood, because Leydig cells are normally quiescent. A broader clinical definition of hypogonadism that could be applied to male patients in different periods of life requires a comprehensive consideration of the physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and its disturbances along development. 2540 men had normal TT (18.4-5.5 [mean-SD] nmol/L) and FT (326-75 pmol/L). There were 261 men in group 1 (normal TT (14.2-3.7 nmol/L), low FT (195-22 pmol/L)) and 92 men in group 2 (low TT (9.6-0.7 nmol/L), normal FT (247-20 pmol/L)). Compared to referent, men in group 1 were older and had higher SHBG, whereas group 2 was younger and had lower SHBG. Men in group 1, but not group 2, were in poorer health, had lower haemoglobin and a decrease in bone ultrasound measurements. Regression analysis showed that men in group 1 had less frequent morning erections, more erectile dysfunction, fewer sexual thoughts and more physical symptoms (limitations in doing vigorous activity, walking 1 km and bending). Compared to referent, sexual and physical symptoms did not differ in group 2.

  • Male hypogonadism

    Pathophysiology
    Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm or both.

  • Male hypogonadism

    Statistics
    2540 men had normal TT (18.4-5.5 [mean-SD] nmol/L) and FT (326-75 pmol/L). There were 261 men in group 1 (normal TT (14.2-3.7 nmol/L), low FT (195-22 pmol/L)) and 92 men in group 2 (low TT (9.6-0.7 nmol/L), normal FT (247-20 pmol/L)). Compared to referent, men in group 1 were older and had higher SHBG, whereas group 2 was younger and had lower SHBG.

  • Male hypogonadism

    Treatment
    Treatments for this condition might be based on the severity and age of occurrence, in few cases testosterone replacement might be a cure.

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