Ménière’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes severe dizziness (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness or congestion in the ear. Ménière’s disease usually affects only one ear.
Understanding the pathogenesis of Meniere's requires a study of known and unknown causes. In this study, Meniere's disease (cause unknown) was differentiated from Meniere's syndrome (cause known). Meniere's disease or syndrome can occur years after some inciting cause; thus all forms of Meniere's can be considered to have a delayed onset.
A study of the natural history (epidemiology) of Meniere's disease demonstrated the three major symptoms (triad) to be vestibular symptoms, auditory symptoms, and aural pressure. Bilaterality occurs in at least one out of 3 patients, and may approach 50% over full lifespans. Aural pressure (74.1%) was common, as was positional vertigo (85.9%) during and/or between attacks.
Existing treatments fall into two categories. Some treatments aim at reducing the severity of an attack while it is occurring; some treatments attempt to reduce the severity and number of attacks in the long term. Experts feel these medical treatments provide some degree of improvement in 60–80% of the treated people.4 Gentamicin is >80% effective at control of vertigo.
Major research on disease:
Role of endolymphatic sac in the pathophysiology of Meniere’s disease current concepts:Meniere's syndrome can occur as a sequel to syphilis, otosclerosis, infection (for example otitis media), or trauma.Clinical variants such as vestibular Meniere's disease could persist for 25 years or more.