Nephrotic syndrome is a nonspecific kidney disorder characterized by three signs of disease: large proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. Essentially, loss of protein through the kidneys (proteinuria) leads to low protein levels in the blood which causes water to be drawn into soft tissues . Very low hypoalbuminemia can also cause a variety of secondary problems, such as water in the abdominal cavity (ascites), around the heart or lung (pericardial effusion, pleural effusion), high cholesterol loss of molecules regulating coagulation . Children (2.8%) are less likely than adults (26.7%) with nephrotic syndrome to develop thromboembolism.
Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by large proteinuria (>3.5g perday per 1.73m2 body surface area > or 40 mg per square meter body surface area per hour , hypoalbuminemia (< 2,5 g/dl), hyperlipidaemia, and edema (which is generalized and also known as anasarca or dropsy) that begins in the face. Lipiduria (lipids in urine) can also occur, but is not essential for the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. Hyponatremia also occurs with a low fractional sodium excretion. The most common sign is excess fluid in the body due to the serum hypoalbuminemia.