Continence and micturition involve a balance between urethral closure and detrusor muscle activity. Urethral pressure normally exceeds bladder pressure, resulting in urine remaining in the bladder. The proximal urethra and bladder are both within the pelvis. Intra-abdominal pressure increases (from coughing and sneezing) are transmitted to both urethra and bladder equally, leaving the pressure differential unchanged, resulting in continence.
A representative population sample of 5,269 adults completed a questionnaire in their own homes. There were 2,499 men and 2,770 women aged 30 years and over. 130 men (5.2%) and 442 women (16.30%) had urinary incontinence at the time of the survey. Of 1,426 women aged over 50 years, 300 (21.0%) had urinary incontinence.
Treatment is keyed to the type of incontinence. The usual approaches are as follows: • Stress incontinence - Surgery, pelvic floor physiotherapy, anti-incontinence devices, and medication • Urge incontinence - Changes in diet, behavioral modification, pelvic-floor exercises, and/or medications and new forms of surgical intervention • Mixed incontinence - Anticholinergic drugs and surgery
Stem cells, which can develop into many possible cells or organs, are an area of intense study by scientists interested in managing or curing a wide array of serious health conditions. For this study, researchers from Finland and the Netherlands treated five women suffering from stress incontinence with adipose (fat-derived) stem cells combined with bovine collagen gel -- a bulking agent -- and saline solution. The women either didn't want to undergo the mesh procedure, known as midurethral sling surgery, or had undergone unsuccessful mesh implants.