|Today, scientists find useful applications for compounds from nature but their search methods have changed. Biochemists analyze plants, microorganisms, but many of the things they work with are small even to be seen with a microscope, so they use chemicals to perform experiments. Many of these new inventions are enzymes, biological molecules that are like catalysts for chemical reactions. Sometimes, the only way to get useful organic compound is to get the organism that contains it. But improvements in science, useful compounds can now often be reproduced in a laboratory and sometimes they can be made by genetic engineering. For examples, insulin is a hormone important to human digestion. Many people with diabetes must take insulin as a medicine.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.