The framework is part of the efforts to address vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It is useful to eradicate poverty, fill productive employment and enhance social integration. Climate change will have the largest impact on areas that have high population density, significant historical exposure to climate related hazards, high household’s vulnerability, poor governance, and low resilience to stress on natural resources. Indigenous community based climate vulnerability and capacity assessment (CBVCA) in the Garo hills has implications for livelihoods, food systems, ecological stress and perceive culture. This study characterizes CBVCA in the Garo hills of northeast India to climate change in the context of ongoing socio-economic and environmental challenges. The Garo indigenous communities have been identified as vulnerable in the climate change vulnerability analysis as they have high poverty levels, dependency on natural resources, food, water and livelihood, insecurity and lack of sustainable livelihood. They are frequently ravaged by cyclonic storms and alternate spells of drought which disrupt their cycle of cultivation and livelihood. Existing stresses in the community influence infrastructure, livelihoods, health, education and wellbeing. Strategies for adapting to adverse conditions have largely been tactical and short term, rather than planned actions in anticipation of changes in climate. The framework indicates that majority of villages of Garo hills of Meghalaya currently and in near future are subject to climate induced vulnerability. A future adaptation planning and policy need to enable community involvement in the protection of important community attributes.