The appearance of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has significantly changed the way we think about scientific approaches in basic research and clinical application. The RNA sequencing method can provide information for alternative splicing and sequence variation, and quantify novel transcripts even without prior knowledge of them. The DNA sequencing method helps us to perform large-scale comparative and evolutionary studies in whole genome which were unimaginable just a few years ago. And more importantly, NGS not only increased the experiments throughput and extended the results, but also highly decreased the sequencing costs. These features make NGS an effective and promising tool in clinical applications. And in fact NGS is now widely applied to the clinic in many areas such asmolecular diagnostics, pathogen detection, and genetic mutations.